Kinship on the Mountains
After the long-standing war of the Kalingas and the Ifugaos, the unification of their clans and tribes gave way to the greater collective society called the "Igorot" meaning the Peoples of the Mountain. Little would they know that the peace they chose, and the brotherhood they forged shall be their greatest defense in the centuries to come - against the white invaders who shall try to take their lands.
Shaping the Land. Shaping the Future
Upon constructing the infamous Banaue Rice Terraces, the Igorots from the mountains of Ifugao made compact camaraderie with each other that lead to making larger villages. The Rice Terraces meant that what has been an idea for planting rice was an indication of their strong contact between their immediate communities, sharing same cultural traits. The Banaue Rice Terraces made it to the list of Eighth Wonders of the World.
Resistance on Mactan's Shores
Datu Lapu-Lapu along with 1500 Mactan people was the first to resist both the cultural interference by foreigners and the growing tyranny of the local Rajah Humabon. The people of Mactan successfully opposed the forces of the Rajah and of Magellan, in which upon his death, continued to sail west to circumnavigate the world. Along with them, written in the documents of their official historian, is the story of the ferocity of the people of Mactan.
No Place for Greed in the North
It was the alleged abuses of tax collectors that drove Ilocanos, Ibanags, and other Filipinos to unite and revolt against the Tribute in Luzon particularly in the provinces of Ilocos Norte and Cagayan. Natives of the province killed six tax collectors which officially started the said revolution. The killing then made General Santiago de Vera decide to send his men in order to threaten the rebels. The Tribute Revolt was a success as it lead to reforming the Philippine tax system.
Fair Work, Fair Wages for the Kapampangans
Pampanga was known for its riches, this drew Spanish Religious Orders to it. In effect, Kapampangans bore the burden of giving more tributes, this entailed forced labors under unfair conditions and rice exploitations. They were made to work for 8 months without pay both from work and the rice purchased from them. By setting their campsite on fire, Kapampangans declared rebellion against the Spaniards. They were led by Francisco Maniago. Spaniards fighting against the Dutch helped the Kapampangans deplete their troops. A bloodier uprising in Pangasinan will follow under Andres Malong's leadership. Malong heeded Maniago's call to fight the Spanish oppressors.
For Work, For Gold, 'Til Death
Dubbed as the longest revolt in the Philippines, Francisco Dagohoy's rebellion in Bohol lasted for 85 years. Dagohoy led his people in an uprising after a Jesuit priest refused Dagohoy's brother a christian burial. 20 Spanish Governor Generals failed to quell the rebellion. Gov. Manuel Ricafort's 2,200 Filipino-Spanish troops in 1827 also failed. 1828-1829 attacks also suffered. Dagohoy died 2 years after the Spaniards finally managed to defeat the Filipinos. 19,000 survivors were pardoned and allowed in new villages (Batuan, Bililihan, Cabulao, Catigoian, and Vilar.)
A Brotherhood without Boundaries
The Cofradía de San José (Confraternity of St. Joseph) is a group of "Indios" founded in response to the Roman Catholic Church's racial discrimination against allowing native Filipinos to be included in the church's religious orders. The confraternity was led by the young and adamant religious leader, Apolinarino De La Cruz who seeks for the group's recognition by the church.The request will be denied in several instances. Shaken by the resistance of the group to be disbanded, the Spanish government will brand the brotherhood as an armed rebellion and will later be violent suppressed and quelled.
To Rule One's Self
Ilocos for Ilocanos. This is the call of the one of the more famous revolutionary movement during the Spanish Era. Led by the couple Diego and Gabriela Silang, the movement calls for the halt of the tax abuses and unfair work practices, and ultimately, the independence of Ilocandia from the rest of the country. While the campaign would eventually fail, the Silang Revolt is significantly remembered for the ambition of self-governance.
Building a Nation Bound by Blood
An oath signed with blood marked the final step to becoming a full-fledged member of the Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangan na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan. Founded by Andres Bonifacio in 1892, the Katipunan revolutionary society aimed to win Philippine Independence from Spanish rule. Tens of thousands of Filipinos performed the blood compact to pledge allegiance to the revolutionary society and their vision to unite Filipinos under one nation. This blood bond and thirst for freedom fueled the Philippine Revolution which ended with Katipuneros leading the First Philippine Republic and declaring Independence in 1899.
Filipino Women's Right to Vote: We Say Yes
While not all Filipino women voted for Women's Suffrage or the right to vote, women in general still won against indifference in a vast number of 447,725 votes by women who kept standing to fight for what they know they deserve versus 44,307 by women who voted against the movement.
Fight Against The Rising Sun
Filipinos revolted against the Japanese by forming a group called Hukbalahaps or the Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon (People's Army Against the Japanese) in 1942. Aspiring to resist against the colonizers, the Huks mustered in brave fellow Filipinos mostly from Central Luzon and fought right after the Fall of Bataan until there were no longer Japanese invaders in the country.
Heroes By The Sea
1944, World War 2, The Visayas - Cebuano guerillas, fisher folks, along with American soldiers had placed a great blow in the Japanese campaign to conquer the archipelago. The "Koga Papers", a series of documents containing strategic and tactical plans of the Japanese forces, by sheer luck, was placed in the hands of the fishermen after the crash of a plane en route to Davao. In a great game of relay, cat-and-mouse, and hunt-me-downs, the documents made its way from locals to guerillas, to soldiers and submarines and finally to the Allied base in Australia. The documents made it possible for General MacArthur to shift war plans and make his legendary docking on the shores of Leyte.
Women Seeking Justice
Maria Rosa Luna Henson or Lola Rosa, a former member of the Hukbalahap, was only 16 years old when she was first held captive by the Japanese soldiers in 1943. After her capture, she became a comfort woman and experienced severe physical, mental, and sexual abuses in the hands of the culprits. Forty nine years later, in 1992, Lola Rosa now 65 years old decided to speak up and share her experiences of abuse for being a comfort woman for almost nine months. She wrote the book Comfort Women: Slave of Destiny as a tangible testimony of the abuses she received during the Japanese occupation. Since then, many other women started speaking up, and with their unified audacity, they started seeking for justice.
Marching for Reforms Coming From All Directions
In solidarity with agricultural workers and farmers, Filipino Agrarian Reform Movement (FARM), composed of intellectuals, journalists, and professionals, launched the Land Justice March in Tarlac. The massive protest march and the 93 day sit-in in front of Congress called for land reform in Central Luzon and better conditions for the peasant communities. After Ferdinand Marcos flew and meet the protesters and agreed to most of their demands, Land Justice March dissolved.
Raising Fists Against Imperialism and Facism
It was Monday, January 26 when about 50,000 demonstrators and youth protestors gathered at the Burgos Drive to call on Constitution reforms as the 7th Congress opens. The demonstration was held by NUSP or the National Union of Students of the Philippines headed by then Martial Law hero, NUSP's president and student Edgar Jopson of the Ateneo de Manila University. These series of collective demonstrations became known as the First Quarter Storm. The First Quarter Storm lasted for three months starting January to March 1970. It is believed that the public's disapproval of the administration was one of the factors that lead to President Marcos declaring Martial Law two years later.
EDSA 1: To Kill With Kindness
In February of 1986, scores of Filipinos occupy Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, united in their call to end Ferdinand Marcos' authoritarian regime. The non-violent demonstrations contrasted sharply with the harsh violence under Marcos' dictatorship.
A Torrent of Bayanihan
Tropical Storm Ondoy was the second most devastating tropical cyclone in 2009. Massive bayanihan efforts took place. National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) headed the rescue and relief operations. Private-sectors and NGOs also did relief efforts and activities in varios areas. The Philippine Army, Philippine National Red Cross, and Philippine Coast Guard all deployed teams to support and assist relief and resue operations. People from home used different social media sites to extend help; they share updated news report and report to the authorities whereabouts of stranded people who were trapped in floods. Donations from different parts of the globe also arrived.
Standing Together to End Corruption
"ERAP Resign!" chants the collection of civil society organizations, militant groups, left-wing movements, students, and the large Anti-Estrada crowd amounting to hundreds of thousands. The second organized large-scale, ouster rally at EDSA succeeded in overthrowing President Joseph Estrada, at that time marred with allegations of political corruption and was replaced by the Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. For some critics, EDSA DOS was a bitter reminder of how people power is a double-edged sword. People power in action will effect the change it demands, a force potent yet volatile. In the years to come, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo will be named in national surveys as 'the country's most corrupt leader".
Never Again, Never Forget
A blast from the past. "Marcos Hitler Dikatador Tuta!", the circa 1970s slogan was again echoed, this time in the grounds of present-day Metro Manila and in the other parts of the country. Comprising of Martial Law era activists, CSOs, professionals, teachers and students, crowds of thousands flocked together in response to the Supreme Court ruling with 9-5 in favor of throwing out petitions against the burial of the late Dictator Ferdinand Marcos. While the burial was commenced in spite of public outcry to overturn the decision, the events that transpired on November 2016 rekindled the vigor of political activism, most especially to the youth who attended the Black Friday Protests.
To Tacloban, With Love
The scale of the devastation of Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) can only be match with the scale of bayanihan acted out during one of the worst natural disaster on record.From religious groups to international NGOs, from civil society organizations to ordinary individuals, efforts has been made to deliver relief and disaster response with a scope so wide the Philippines has never seen before.
One Million Strong Against Corruption
The week-long "Million People March," August 22-26, 2013 was the Filipinos' response to the misuse and corruption of the pork barrel fund. This happened under PNoy's "Kung walang corrupt, walang mahirap" platform against corruption. Police estimated 80,000 to 100,000 people attended the protest at the Luneta Grand Stand. A nationwide protest erupted; the call was to SCRAP PORK and hold those who are involved accountable from their crimes. It was one of the largest demonstrations in 2013 since Benigno Aquino III was elected in 2010.
“The Revolution is Colorblind” Meiben Lettrisse De Guzman | Lorhenz Lacsa | Hannah Navarroza | Renee Juliene Karunungan | Mark Fortaleza | Floyd Scott Tiogangco | Angelo Abcede | Jonas Erwin Tugab